SSH tunnel connections
Materialize can connect to data sources like Kafka, Confluent, and PostgreSQL with a
secure SSH bastion server. In this guide, you will create an
connection, configure your Materialize authentication settings, and create a
Before you begin, make sure you have access to a bastion host. You will need:
- The bastion host IP address and port number
- The bastion host username
Create an SSH tunnel connection
In Materialize, use a
CREATE CONNECTION statement to create an SSH tunnel connection to the bastion server:
CREATE CONNECTION ssh_connection TO SSH TUNNEL ( HOST '<SSH_BASTION_HOST>', USER '<SSH_BASTION_USER>', PORT <SSH_BASTION_PORT> );
Configure the SSH bastion server
The bastion host needs a public key to connect to the Materialize tunnel you created in the previous step.
Materialize stores public keys for SSH tunnels. Use a
SELECTstatement to return two public keys:
SELECT * FROM mz_ssh_tunnel_connections;
| id | public_key_1 | public_key_2 | |-------|---------------------------------------|---------------------------------------| | u75 | ssh-ed25519 AAAA...76RH materialize | ssh-ed25519 AAAA...hLYV materialize |
Materialize provides two public keys to allow you to rotate keys without connection downtime. Review the
ALTER CONNECTIONdocumentation for more information on how to rotate your keys.
Log in to your SSH bastion server and add each key to the bastion
# Command for Linux echo "ssh-ed25519 AAAA...76RH materialize" >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys echo "ssh-ed25519 AAAA...hLYV materialize" >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
Configure your internal firewall to allow the SSH bastion host to connect to your Kafka cluster or PostgreSQL instance.
If you are using a cloud provider like AWS or GCP, update the security group or firewall rules for your PostgreSQL instance or Kafka brokers.
Allow incoming traffic from the SSH bastion host IP address on the necessary ports.
For example, use port
5432for PostgreSQL and ports
Test the connection from the bastion host to the Kafka cluster or PostgreSQL instance.
telnet <KAFKA_BROKER_HOST> <KAFKA_BROKER_PORT> telnet <POSTGRES_HOST> <POSTGRES_PORT>
If the command hangs, double-check your security group and firewall settings. If the connection is successful, you can proceed to the next step.
Verify the tunnel connection from your source to your SSH bastion host
# Command for Linux ssh -L 9092:kafka-broker:9092 <SSH_BASTION_USER>@<SSH_BASTION_HOST>
Verify that you can connect to the Kafka broker or PostgreSQL instance via the tunnel:
telnet localhost 9092
If you are unable to connect using the
PermitTunnelon your bastion host SSH configuration file.
On your SSH bastion host, open the SSH config file (usually located at
/etc/ssh/sshd_config) using a text editor:
sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config
Add or uncomment the following lines:
AllowTcpForwarding yes PermitTunnel yes
Save the changes and restart the SSH service:
sudo systemctl restart sshd
Retrieve the static egress IPs from Materialize and configure the firewall rules (e.g. AWS Security Groups) for your SSH bastion to allow SSH traffic for those IP addresses only.
SELECT * FROM mz_catalog.mz_egress_ips;
XXX.140.90.33 XXX.198.159.213 XXX.100.27.23
Validate the SSH tunnel connection
To confirm that the SSH tunnel connection is correctly configured, use the
VALIDATE CONNECTION command:
VALIDATE CONNECTION ssh_connection;
If no validation errors are returned, the connection can be used to create a source connection.
Create a source connection
In Materialize, create a source connection that uses the SSH tunnel connection you configured in the previous section:
CREATE CONNECTION kafka_connection TO KAFKA ( BROKERS ( 'broker1:9092' USING SSH TUNNEL ssh_connection, 'broker2:9092' USING SSH TUNNEL ssh_connection -- Add all Kafka brokers ) );
You can reuse this Kafka connection across multiple
CREATE SOURCE json_source FROM KAFKA CONNECTION kafka_connection (TOPIC 'test_topic') FORMAT BYTES WITH (SIZE = '3xsmall');
CREATE SECRET pgpass AS '<POSTGRES_PASSWORD>'; CREATE CONNECTION pg_connection TO POSTGRES ( HOST 'instance.foo000.us-west-1.rds.amazonaws.com', PORT 5432, USER 'postgres', PASSWORD SECRET pgpass, SSL MODE 'require', DATABASE 'postgres' SSH TUNNEL ssh_connection );
You can reuse this PostgreSQL connection across multiple
CREATE SOURCE mz_source FROM POSTGRES CONNECTION pg_connection (PUBLICATION 'mz_source') FOR ALL TABLES WITH (SIZE = '3xsmall');